Sign up for the ST Asian Insider newsletter to get exclusive insights into Asia from our network of overseas correspondents. Early growth rates in this environment suggest that after 20 years the sandalwood trees might reach a commercial diameter of 12 - 15 cm although it might be worth waiting longer as the trees will be increasing in value all the time. The woods are heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and, unlike many other aromatic woods, they retain their fragrance for decades. Producing commercially valuable sandalwood with high levels of fragrance oils requires Indian sandalwood trees to be a minimum of 15 years old – the yield, quality and volume are still to be clearly understood.Yield of oil tends to vary depending on the age and location of the tree; usually, the older trees yield the highest oil content and quality. Author has 933 answers and 585.9K answer views. "We are a price maker.". Its pleasant woody aroma makes it a good choice in perfumery and cosmetic industry. The logs are either processed to distill the essential oil, or made into powders for making incense. The genus Santalum has more than 19 species. Santanol manages about 2,200ha of sandalwood in Kununurra, on the border of Western Australia and the Northern Territory about 3,000km from Perth. Sandalwood can live up to 100 years old, and typically grows up to 33-50 feet in height. Here sandalwood trees mix with other tropical species. TFS customers include Estee Lauder, which uses sandalwood oil as a base note in its Pleasures brand perfume. We have been experiencing some problems with subscriber log-ins and apologise for the inconvenience caused. [21] In some Buddhist traditions, sandalwood is considered to be of the padma (lotus) group and attributed to Amitabha Buddha. "When you create a fragrance, a formula, you need to be able to give to your customers a consistent product," Mr Clero said. That makes the mature trees on the Australian plantations run by TFS Corp and KKR & Co-backed Santanol Group worth about US$1,500 apiece. This process is much longer than any other essential oil's distillation, taking 14 to 36 hours to complete, but generally produces much higher quality oil. The sandalwood tree is a semi-parasitic tree that thrives in dry and rocky terrain. Get unlimited access to all stories at $0.99/month for the first 3 months. The government of Karnataka, one of the largest growers of sandalwood in India, is backing cultivation in a bid to rebuild supply. Sandalwood is a commercially and culturally important plant species belonging to the ... each tree adds 1 kg of heartwood to its weight each year after the age of 15 years. Apart from this type, agarwood/aloeswood (, "Tropical Forestry Services becomes Quintis as the company shifts focus", "Indian sandalwood production set to lose home ground edge", "Vanuatu sandalwood: growers' guide for sandalwood production in Vanuatu", "Top 10 Most Expensive Woods in the World", "Sildekrydderi til Røde Sild [Herring-spice for Red Herrings]", "Significance of Sacred Sandalwood Chandan in Ayurvedic Remedies, Spiritual Rituals and Medicine", "Now, All roads lead to Mumbai's Mahim Dargah fair", "The supernatural in nature Sindhi tradition", Plant Cultures: botany, history and use of sandalwood, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sandalwood&oldid=998125625, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Other species: Commercially, various other species, not belonging to, This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 23:10. [6][7], Australian sandalwood (S. spicatum) is grown in commercial plantations throughout the wheatbelt of Western Australia, where it has been an important part of the economy since colonial times. The main source of true sandalwood, S. album, is a protected species, and demand for it cannot be met. Apart from the vast Sandalwood quantities that were being harvested from the wild, the nature of exploitation raised concern on the species survival as it involved uprooting the whole tree. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Sandalwood may offer some health benefits as well. The flavouring is used at levels below 10 ppm, the highest possible level for use in food products being 90 ppm. Indian Sandalwood, used mainly for oil extraction, does require removal of the sapwood prior to distillation. A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Straits Times on February 23, 2017, with the headline 'Aussie sandalwood growers can cash in now after 15-year wait'. Sandalwood is also a key ingredient in the "floriental" (floral-ambery) fragrance family – when combined with white florals such as jasmine, ylang ylang, gardenia, plumeria, orange blossom, tuberose, etc. You have reached your limit of subscriber-only articles this month. India has historically been the dominant supplier but sales from government auctions plunged in recent years due to over-exploitation and smuggling. [citation needed]. However, after the sandalwood is harvested, the host trees will be useless, with new host trees being planted as new sandalwood is grown. There are two types of seed beds are available in the nursery for the sowing sandalwood seeds. Santanol currently sells the oil for just under US$3,000 per kg. In Hinduism and Ayurveda, sandalwood is thought to bring one closer to the divine. Global demand for sandalwood is set to gain fivefold to 20,000 tonnes of wood a year in the decade to 2025, according to TFS, the largest plantation operator in Australia. Both the wood and the oil produce a distinctive fragrance that has been highly valued for centuries. TFS plans to raise output thirtyfold to 10,000 tonnes of timber a year from its 12,000ha of plantations in northern Australia, including a large plantation area in Kununurra. There is documented evidence for the use of sandalwood by Australia’s indigenous people. Early Europeans in Australia used quandong in cooking damper by infusing it with its leaves, and in making jams, pies, and chutneys from the fruit. SPH Digital News / Copyright © 2020 Singapore Press Holdings Ltd. Co. Regn. That state has been the victim of a series of boom and bust economic cycles based on commodities like supplying the American whaling fleet, pineapple, sugar, military spending and tourism. In both Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine, sandalwood oil is believed to be beneficial in treating both physical and mental disorders, including anxiety, bronchitis, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, gallbladder problems, high blood pressure, indigestion, insomnia, liver problems, low libido, sore throat, and urinary tract infections. No need to register, buy now! The biggest growth in demand will come from pharmaceuticals and TFS is in the process of developing dermatological products to treat conditions including acne and psoriasis. After the firekeeping priests complete the ceremony, attendees are allowed to come up to the afarganyu and place their own pieces of sandalwood into the fire. 1:15 . After the age of seven to eight years, the heartwood of a sandalwood tree grows by 1 kg every year, and its market price is between Rs 3,000 and Rs 6,000 per kg. Sandalwoods are medium-sized hemiparasitic trees, and part of the same botanical family as European mistletoe. Mr Remi Clero, the CEO of Santanol, said: "The business can be very big." [18] The wood is used for worshipping the god Shiva, and it is believed that goddess Lakshmi lives in the sandalwood tree. Sandalwood oil in India is widely used in the cosmetic industry. Australia is the largest producer of S. album, with the majority grown around Kununurra, in the far north of the state by Quintis (formerly Tropical Forestry Services), which in 2017 controlled around 80 per cent of the world's supply of Indian sandalwood,[4] and Santanol. Fruit of Indian sandalwood or Chandan tree ,Santalum album,Holy Tree of India - Duration: 1:15. [17] The oil is also used as a flavour component in different food items, including candy, ice cream, baked food, puddings, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, and gelatin. Santanol's plantation at Kununurra will be among the sources filling the gap, Mr Clero said. [19] Preparation of the paste is a duty fit only for the pure, so is entrusted only to priests when used in temples and during ceremonies. When it is fully grown, the tree will have a length of 13-16 metre and a diameter of 1-2 metre. Thus, it is one of the most used holy elements in Hindu and Vedic societies. Sandalwood oil comes from the wood and roots of Santalum album, or the East Indian sandalwood tree. Consequently, some species of these slow-growing trees have suffered over-harvesting in the past. Gowda estimates planting 500 sandalwood trees on 1ha over a period of 15 years will cost ₹ 48 lakh. [13] It is also one of the most popular scents used when offering incense to the Buddha and the guru. When the sandalwood tree is two years old, an assessment of its ratio to hosts should be undertaken. [13] In Scandinavia, pulverised bark from red sandalwood (Pterocarpus soyauxii) is used - with other tropical spices - when marinating anchovies and some types of pickled herring such as matjes, sprat, and certain types of traditional spegesild, inducing a reddish colour and slightly perfumed flavour.[14][15][16]. India is not standing still, however. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. Hi There, Sandal wood it very expensive and it is used for making various stuffs. In order to get the most benefit from this essential oil, the sandalwood tree must grow for at least 40–80 years before the roots can be harvested. Download Sandalwood tree stock photos. It is often a source of income for the fire temple. The jam tree itself is variable and it is important to choose a variety suited to the area in which it is to be planted. Australian Sandalwood plantation trees are mature at 20 years of age. Aboriginal Australians eat the seed kernels, nuts, and fruit of local sandalwoods, such as the quandong (S. Why is it illegal to grow sandalwood tree in a private property in India? Sandalwood paste mixed with saffron is used to worship tirthankar Jain deities. Because of its high sensitivity to fire, sandalwood works very well for this. Tanzania offered a ready market to Sandalwood from Kenya and by the year 2004, the exploitation of the species in Kenya was a matter of concern. Until we resolve the issues, subscribers need not log in to access ST Digital articles. Present-day chefs have begun experimenting in using the nut as a substitute for macadamia nuts or a bush food substitute for almonds, hazelnuts, and others in Southeast Asian-styled cuisine. The oil is very tightly bound within the cellular structure of the wood, so the high heat of the steam causes the oil to be released. Sandalwood is called sukhad in the Zoroastrian community. No chemical pesticides or fertilisers are used. During the festival of Mahamastakabhisheka that is held once in every 12 years, the statue of Gommateshwara is then bathed and anointed with libations such as milk, sugarcane juice, and saffron paste, and sprinkled with powders of sandalwood, turmeric, and vermilion.[20]. Sandalwood scent is believed by some to transform one's desires and maintain a person's alertness while in meditation. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the woods for use. Kalabham, chandanam, and javadhu are dried and used as kalabham powder, chandanam powder, and javadhu powder, respectively. Steam distillation is the most common method used by sandalwood companies. Gupta says supply of legally sourced sandalwood from India is limited partly because of government restrictions on production and exports. This way wood from the stump and root, which possesses high levels of sandalwood oil, can also be processed and sold. Sandalwood is not offered to the divo, a smaller lamp that is kept in the homes of Zoroastrians. Still, demand from new sectors, dwindling Indian output and the difficulty in replicating the maturing Australian plantation trees make TFS confident of the future. When sandalwood tree plants are 15 to 20 years old then in August to march you can collect the seeds from the sandalwood. The Sandalwood Tree. Fire has been a sacred symbol in the Zoroastrian religion since ancient times and it is considered very important to keep the fires in the temples constantly burning. When used in smaller proportions in a perfume, it acts as a fixative, enhancing the longevity of other, more volatile, materials in the composite. Indian variety is known as “Santalum album”. World has 16 varieties of sandalwood. The oil has sweet and spicy warm fragrance. Sandalwood oil, powder, carvings and other highly valued products are obtained from the heartwood of Santalum album, a member of the Santalaceae botanical family; it is a hemi-parasitic tree that obtains nutrients via its roots from several other plant species. A kilogram of Indian sandalwood oil now sells for about US$3,000 (S$4,255), or about five times as much as silver, and prices are rising by at least 20 to 25 per cent a year, according to the South India Sandalwood Products Dealers and Exporters Association. With the gradual addition of water, a thick paste forms (called kalabham "കളഭം" in Malayalam language and gandha ಗಂಧ in Kannada) and is mixed with saffron or other such pigments to make chandanam. "They need to be able to do deals with companies like ours for 10 years or more of guaranteed supply.". planting and maintenance up to a period of 12 to 15 years for a hectare would be about Rs.10 lakhs, with impressive economic returns. years, India has been the traditional leader of sandalwood oil production for perfumery and pharmaceuticals3. Sandalwood must be distilled so that the oil can be extracted from within. It arrived in English via Late Greek, Medieval Latin and Old French in the 14th or 15th century.[1]. Due to its low fluorescence and optimal refractive index, sandalwood oil is often employed as an immersion oil within ultraviolet and fluorescence microscopy. In aromatherapy, inhaling the aroma of sandalwood oil or absorbing it through the skin is thought to transmit messages to parts o…